Energy Management Strategy for Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) Battery and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) on 3-wheel Hybrid Electric Car Equipped with Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT)


  • D. R. Harahap Politeknik Manufaktur Negeri Bangka Belitung (Polmanbabel), Bangka Belitung - INDONESIA
  • Wei-Chin Chang Southern Taiwan Univiersity of Science and Technology (STUST), Tainan - TAIWAN
  • S. Ariyono Politeknik Negeri Semarang (Polines), Semarang - INDONESIA


NiMH battery, PEMFC, Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Energy Management, rubber belt CVT


Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) have higher energy conversion efficiencies than the internal combustion engine (ICE) which are also attractive to apply in the automotive sector, its ability to use hydrogen also become a reason why this technology is becoming popular as an alternative solution to solve the energy crisis. An objective of this research is to design the strategy to manage the energy from fuel cell and observe the energy consumption, maximum speed, and the ability of the vehicle powertrain to climb the slope. A small electric vehicle was modelled using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR) software which developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). From this experiment, the vehicle primary power source was using a 200W small PEM fuel cell stack combined with AA-type batteries of nickel metal hydride as a backup energy source of each battery have 1.2 V and 1.9 AH. The PEM fuel cell stack and NiMH battery performance were examined using an electronic load to meet the power requirement of the hybrid vehicle. The experiment results shows that the operation range of the fuel cell maximum power was set in the range of 40%-60% to withdraw power from NiMH battery and keep the fuel cell run in its high-efficiency domain. When the vehicle power is lower than 40% of the fuel cell maximum power, the battery will supply the power for the vehicle, and the fuel cell will shut off. When the required power is bigger than the fuel cell maximum power, the battery will supply power to balance it. The car can drive on the sloping road with 3.5% gradability, the fuel consumption in 100 km about 40.6 L/100 km. In 5 seconds, the car can reach 33.9 m and reach 0.4 km need 26.1 seconds.


Y. L. Daniel Garraín, Cristina de la Rúa, "Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) in Automotive Applications: Environmental Relevance of the Manufacturing Stage," Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, vol. 2, pp. 68-74, 2011.

L. C. Rosario, "Power and Energy Management of Multiple Energy Storage Systems in Electric Vehicles," Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Aerospace Power & Sensors, Cranfield University, 2007.

G. G. Ayse Elif Sanlı, Aylin Aytac, Mahmut Mat, "Development of a power management unit for small portable direct borohydride fuel cell NiMH battery hybrid system," International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 37, pp. 19103-19110, 2012.

M. S. Diego Feroldi, Jordi Riera, "Energy Management Strategies based on efficiency map for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles," Journal of Power Source, vol. 190, pp. 387-401, 2007.

Wikipedia. New European Driving Cycle - Wikipedia [Online]. Available:, (accessed Apr 10, 2017)

A. B. T. Markel, T. Hendricks, V. Johnson, K. Kelly, B. Kramer, M. O’Keefe, S. Sprik, K. Wipke, "ADVISOR: a systems analysis tool for advanced vehicle modeling," Journal of Power Source, vol. 110, pp. 255-266, 2002.

M. Transmission. What is a Drivetrain? [Online]. Available:, (accessed Apr 14, 2017)

P. M. Hien, "A Simulation and Experiment Study of Small Fuel Cell/ Battery Hybrid Vehicle," Master Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan - R.O.C., 2009.





FoITIC 2020