Energy Management Strategy for Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) Battery and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) on 3-wheel Hybrid Electric Car Equipped with Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT)
Keywords:NiMH battery, PEMFC, Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Energy Management, rubber belt CVT
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) have higher energy conversion efficiencies than the internal combustion engine (ICE) which are also attractive to apply in the automotive sector, its ability to use hydrogen also become a reason why this technology is becoming popular as an alternative solution to solve the energy crisis. An objective of this research is to design the strategy to manage the energy from fuel cell and observe the energy consumption, maximum speed, and the ability of the vehicle powertrain to climb the slope. A small electric vehicle was modelled using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR) software which developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). From this experiment, the vehicle primary power source was using a 200W small PEM fuel cell stack combined with AA-type batteries of nickel metal hydride as a backup energy source of each battery have 1.2 V and 1.9 AH. The PEM fuel cell stack and NiMH battery performance were examined using an electronic load to meet the power requirement of the hybrid vehicle. The experiment results shows that the operation range of the fuel cell maximum power was set in the range of 40%-60% to withdraw power from NiMH battery and keep the fuel cell run in its high-efficiency domain. When the vehicle power is lower than 40% of the fuel cell maximum power, the battery will supply the power for the vehicle, and the fuel cell will shut off. When the required power is bigger than the fuel cell maximum power, the battery will supply power to balance it. The car can drive on the sloping road with 3.5% gradability, the fuel consumption in 100 km about 40.6 L/100 km. In 5 seconds, the car can reach 33.9 m and reach 0.4 km need 26.1 seconds.
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